a. What is Cervical Cancer?
Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area.

b. Where is it located?
Cervical cancer starts in a woman’s cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus.

c. Who is at risk?

  • Those who have had more than one sexual partner
  • Those whose partner has had more than one sexual partner
  • Those who became sexually active before age 18
  • Those with a history of vaginal infections or genital warts
  • Those whose mothers took DES, a synthetic hormone that was used to prevent miscarriage between the years 1940 and 1971
  • Those who have had their first child before age 20 or who have had many pregnancies


d. How is it diagnosed?

As part of your regular pelvic exam, you should have a Pap test. During a Pap test the doctor scrapes a small sample of cells from the surface of the cervix to look for cell changes. If a Pap test shows abnormal cell changes, your doctor may do other tests to look for precancerous or cancer cells on your cervix.
Your doctor may also do a Pap test and take a sample of tissue (biopsy) if you have symptoms of cervical cancer, such as bleeding after sex.

e. Are there any stages? If so, explain them.

Stage 0

Also called carcinoma in situ, stage 0 means that cancerous cells that have not invaded deeper tissues. The cells are superficial and are only found on the surface.

Stage I

In stage I, cancerous cells have invaded the cervix, and cells are no longer just at the surface. Cancer is still confined to the cervix and has not spread.

 Stage IA: This is the earliest form of stage I cervical cancer. The cancer can only be identified under microscopic examination.
· Stage IA1: The invasion area is less than 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
· Stage IA2: The invasion area is between 3 mm and 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.

 Stage IB: This stage indicated that cancer can be seen without a microscope. It also include cancers that have invaded the connective tissue of the cervix, deeper than 5mm (1/5 inch).
· Stage IB1: Cancer is no more than 4 centimeters large (1 3/4 inches).
· Stage IB2: Cancer is larger than 4 centimeters (1 3/4 inches)


Stage II

In stage II, the cancer has spread to nearby tissues, but is still contained within the pelvic area.

 Stage IIA: Cancer has spread to the upper part of the vagina. The lower third of the vagina has not been affected.
 Stage IIB: In this stage, cancer has spread to tissue near the cervix. This tissue is called parametrial tissue.


Stage III

This stage indicates that cancer has spread to the lower portion of the vagina. It could have also spread to the pelvic wall in this stage.

 Stage IIIA: Cancer has spread to the lower part of the vagina and is contained in that area.
 Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to the pelvic wall. This also includes cancer that blocks the flow of urine to the bladder.


Stage IV

In stage IV, the cancer has spread to other areas of the body. This is the most advanced stage of cervical cancer.

 Stage IVA: This stage includes cancer that has spread to areas close to the cervix, such as the bladder or rectum.
 Stage IVB: Stage IVB cervical cancer is not considered curable. In this stage, cancer has spread to distant areas of the body, like the lungs.


f. What are the signs?

· Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, or a change in your menstrual cycle that you can't explain.
· Bleeding when something comes in contact with your cervix, such as during sex or when you put in a diaphragm.
· Pain during sex.
· Vaginal discharge that is tinged with blood.

g. How can I prevent it?

1. Get a regular Pap smear
2. Limit the amount of sexual partners you have
3. Quit smoking or avoid secondhand smoke
4. If you are sexually active, use a condom
5. Follow up on abnormal Pap smears
6. Get the HPV vaccine.

h. How can it be treated?

Cervical cancer that is caught early can usually be cured. If the cancer is caught very early, you still may be able to have children after treatment.
The treatment for most stages of cervical cancer removes the cancer and makes you unable to have children. These treatments include:
· A hysterectomy and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes.
· Radiation Therapy
· Chemotherapy






a. What is cervical cancer?-Cervical Cancer is the most common cancer found in women, that is 100% treatable.
b. Where is it located?- It is located in the Cervix, the lower part of the uterus
that opens at the top of the vagina.
c. Who is at risk?- Women are the most at risk for Cervical cancer due to the fact of the paps-meres
d. How is it diagnosed?-Cervical cancer is diagnosed when it reaches its most advanced stage, and when you go and get a pap smear.
e. Are there any stages? If so, explain them.- In stage 1, the cancer is only formed in the cervix but is split into two stages due to the amount of cancer that is found. Stage 2, the cancer has spread beyond the cervix, but not to the pelvic wall, or to the lower part of the vagina. Stage 3, the cancer has spread to the lower part of the vagina, it may have spread to the pelvic wall, and has caused the kidney to stop working, stage 3 may be divided into three more stages depending on how far the cancer spread. Stage 4, which is the final stage in which, the cancer spread to the bladder, rectum
f. What are the signs?- some early signs of detecting cervical cancer is abnormal bleeding of the vaginal area, pain during sexual intercourse, and pain during normal bodily functions.
g. How can I prevent it?- there are many ways cervical cancer can be prevented, you can stop smoking, because cigarettes increases the risk of cervical cancer up to 4 times. Another way to prevent it is to get pap smears on a regular basis.
h. How can it be treated?- Cervical Cancer can be treated by getting a HPV shot, removal of the cervix and lower part of the uterus.
i. Include any other interesting facts.
-Cervical cancer is one of the most treatable cancers out of the 100's that are harmful. It also when you engage in sexual intercourse at an early age will increase your risk of cervical cancer.
Include pictures/drawings/diagrams.

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